http://www.utexas.edu/cofa/art/347/347m_map.html# (Click on “Formative” to view sites in Mesoamerica built from 1500 BC to 260 AD.)
Geographer Dr. Vincent Malmström observed that the ancient Izapa, Mexico Temple Center, located at 14.8° North Latitude, marks the sun’s zenith passage on August 13th and April 30th, which measures the sacred 260-Day Maya Calendar. It was used throughout Mesoamerica in the ancient Olmec “Calendar Round” which began at Izapa around 1500 BC. This was made possible by Izapans observing the sun, moon, star, and Venus cycles that appeared on the eastern horizon primarily on the volcano Tajumulco. From Izapa Stela 9 (sungod rising to heaven) one can see the sun emerging on the mountain on the June 21 Summer Solstice (right).
About 500 BC, new Izapa settlers employed the full Calendar Round (365 day “Haab” year) from which the later Maya Long Count calendar (360 day year) was created. The entire Izapa Temple Center was organized as an observatory with mounds and monuments aligning to precise cycles of the sun, moon, star, and Venus “morning star” (highest star on peak below).
The Izapa Temple Center is the birthplace of the ancient 260-Day calendar. It’s location marking the Zenith passages on August 13 and April 30 define it’s importance. In 2010 Maya Elders performed their sacred 260-day Ceremony at Izapa. The 260-Day count symbolizes the 9 month gestation-creation of a human baby depicted on Stela 10 at Izapa. The Stela 5 Tree of Life carving depicts the ancestral family seated along the base panel (see below). Maya Leaders say a married man and woman are like the trunk of the Tree. The roots are their ancestors and the branches are their posterity (see Maya 260-Day Ceremony page).
MIGRATIONS NORTH & SOUTH
Izapa, Mexico (1500 BC) Sun Zenith passage is 14.8º North Latitude, & Nazca, Peru (100 BC) Sun Zenith passage is 14.8º South Latitude, both marking the sacred 260-Day (9 month human gestation) Calendar.
Above: Enormous Nazca lines at 14.8 degrees South Latitude (which marks the 260-Day count in the Southern hemisphere) have a man, fertility symbol and a woman etched on the vast desert floor above sacred geometry and a star. On the right is the image of a Tree of Life also etched on the Nazca desert floor.
Cahuachi Temple, near Nazca, Peru (100 BC) constructed with the geometric mandala with astronomical alignments like Izapa’s Temple Center–both marking the 260-Day Zenith Calendar.
MIGRATIONS TO NORTH AMERICA
Gordon Brotherston, in his Book of the Fourth World: Reading the Native Americas through their Literature, compares myths and astronomies of ancient Native Americans throughout North America with those in Mesoamerica and South America. He maintains the Popol Vuh of Guatemala stands unrivaled, and Navajo, Hopi, Zuni, Eastern Sioux and Iroquois myths relate to the Popol Vuh. He also found parallels with myths of Nazca and Cuzco, Peru. (1992: 25) (Norman 2015: 241)
Maps above show migrations from Central America to North America. Left: Crystal River, Florida National Park map, Right: Google map. Middle East cubits and the 260-Day sacred Calendar are found at most ancient North American sites, such as those found at Crystal River, Florida. Others include Teotihuacan, Mexico, the Parowan Gap, Utah, and Cahokia, Illinois (see below).
Teotihuacan, Mexico above (100 AD) near Mexico City, far north of the Izapa Temple Center. This Temple was also constructed with Middle Eastern cubits, Geometry, Izapan “Zenith” Astronomy.
The Parowan Gap, Nature’s Perfect Observatory by V.Garth Norman (Cedar Fort, Inc., 2007). The Parowan Gap above (700-1400 AD), located in Southern Utah is a perfect natural observatory where ancient “astronomers” positioned piles of rocks to mark significant dates that include the 260-Day Calendar dates and Solstice and Equinox dates. Petroglyphs emulate Central American images for counting days.
Cahokia (above) was built at 1050 AD. Dr. Timothy Pauketat, Anthropology Professor (Univ. of Illinois), the leading scholar on Cahokia states: “Cahokia was ancient America’s one true city north of Mexico–as large in its day as London–and the political capital of a most unusual Indian nation. The abruptness of the construction of Cahokia is equivalent to the abrupt building of Mexico’s Monte Alban in 500 BC” (2010: 6).
Museum model below shows a circle of 8 foot tall posts positioned to measure time in relation to the central post and cycles of the sun, moon, and stars seen on the eastern horizon.
Other people came to the Americas from Asian, Mongolian and Middle Eastern countries propelled by ocean and wind currents as well as crossing land bridges.